Supply & Demand

Economic realities, government-driven trade policies, and, more recently, the outbreak of COVID-19 are having an impact on the security of supply in our industry. In addition to the decisions many producers, including the lowest-cost producers, have made to preserve long-term value by leaving uranium in the ground, we have seen a number of unplanned supply disruptions related to the impact of the COVID-19 virus on uranium mining and processing activities.

Adding to security of supply concerns is the role of commercial and state-owned entities in the uranium market, and the disconnect between where uranium is produced and where it is consumed. Nearly 80% of primary production is in the hands of state-owned enterprises, after taking into account the cuts to primary production that have occurred over the last several years. Furthermore, almost 90% of primary production comes from countries that consume little-to-no uranium, and 90% of uranium consumption occurs in countries that have little-to-no primary production.

As a result, government-driven trade policies can be particularly disruptive for the uranium market.


The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted global uranium production adding to the supply curtailments that have occurred in the industry for many years. The duration and extent of these disruptions are still unknown, but the uranium market has started to respond. The uranium spot price has increased by more than 35% since we announced the first disruption at Cigar Lake on March 23, 2020.

In this environment, we believe the risk to uranium supply is greater than the risk to uranium demand and expect it will create a renewed focus on ensuring availability of long-term supply to fuel nuclear reactors. Over time, we expect this renewed focus on security of supply will provide the market signals producers need, and will help offset any near-term costs we may incur as a result of the current disruptions to our business.


The world needs electricity

Our industry is driven by energy and electricity consumption which continues to rise year over year. With many governments and communities declaring states of emergency in their jurisdictions due to COVID-19, our utility customers’ nuclear power plants are part of the critical infrastructure needed to guarantee the availability of 24-hour electricity to run hospitals, care facilities, and other essential services.

Growth in Electricity Generation


  1990 2000 2018 2025 2040
Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2019 New Policies
Future estimates       30803 41373
Historic 10092 15441 26603    

The world needs clean-air energy

There is growing recognition of the role nuclear power must play in providing safe, reliable, affordable carbon-free baseload electricity and achieving a low-carbon future. Examples of this growing recognition include:

  • In May 2019, the International Energy Agency released its first nuclear report in 20 years, “Nuclear Power in a Clean Energy System”. The report highlights that a steep decline in nuclear power would threaten energy security and climate change goals and result in billions of tonnes of additional carbon emissions by 2040.
  • In October 2019, the IAEA held its first ever conference recognizing the critical role for nuclear power in combating climate change, “International Conference on Climate Change and the Role of Nuclear Power”. The IAEA advocates that it will be difficult to achieve the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions without a significant increase in nuclear power.
  • In November 2019, the European Parliament adopted a resolution recognizing the role of nuclear energy in achieving its 2050 climate plan calling for net zero emissions.

Demand gap filled

The demand gap left by forced and premature nuclear reactor shut-downs since March of 2011 has been filled. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) five new reactors began commercial operation in 2019, and 53 reactors are under construction. With a number of reactor construction projects recently approved, and many more planned, the demand for uranium is growing. This growth is largely occurring in Asia and the Middle East.

Currently Under Construction

  Asia China India

Africa & Middle East

Europe Russia Americas

Eastern Europe

Source: IAEA
Number of Reactors 12 10 7 6 6 4 4 4

Some of this growth is tempered by early reactor retirements, plans for reduced reliance on nuclear, or phase-out policies in other regions. In addition, COVID-19 is expected to have a negative impact on global energy demand in the near term. However, there is growing recognition of the role nuclear power must play in providing safe, reliable, affordable carbon-free baseload electricity and achieving a low-carbon economy.

Supply-Demand: Putting it Together

Like other commodities, the uranium industry is cyclical.

History demonstrates that in general, when prices are rising and high, uranium is perceived as scarce, and a lot of contracting activity takes place. The heavy contracting that takes place during price runs, drives investment in higher-cost sources of production. Once that production is in the market, it tends to stay in the market longer than is economically rational, creating the perception that uranium is abundant and always will be, and prices decline. When prices are declining and low there is no perceived urgency to contract, and contracting activity and investment in new supply drops off. After years of low investment in supply security of supply tends to overtake price concerns at some point, and utilities re-enter the long-term market to ensure they have the reliable supply of uranium they need to run their reactors.

In our industry, customers do not come to the market right before they need to load uranium into their reactors. To operate a reactor that could run for more than 60 years, natural uranium and the downstream services have to be purchased years in advance, allowing time for a number of processing steps before it arrives at the power plant as a finished fuel bundle.

UxC estimates that cumulative uncovered requirements are about 1.5 billion pounds to the end of 2035.

The longer the recovery of the long-term market is delayed, the less certainty there will be about the availability of future supply to fill growing demand. In fact, recent data from the US Energy Information Administration shows that utility inventories are starting to decline and are approaching levels that could put security of supply at risk. Ultimately, we expect the current market uncertainty to give way to increasing concerns about the security of future supply.

As utilities’ uncovered requirements grow, annual supply declines, demand for uranium from producers and financial players increases, and with trade policy potentially restricting access to some markets, we believe the pounds available in the spot market will not be adequate to satisfy the growing backlog of long-term demand. As a result, we expect there will be increased competition to secure uranium under long-term contracts on terms that will ensure the availability of reliable primary supply to meet growing demand.

Caution about Forward-Looking Information

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