Supply & Demand


Low uranium prices, government-driven trade policies, and the COVID-19 pandemic continued to have an impact on the security of supply in our industry. In addition to the decisions many producers, including the lowest-cost producers, have made to preserve long-term value by leaving uranium in the ground, there have been a number of unplanned supply disruptions related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on uranium mining and processing activities.

Uranium is a highly trade-dependent commodity, and adding to security of supply concerns is the role of commercial and state-owned entities in the uranium market, and trade policies that highlight the disconnect between where uranium is produced and where it is consumed. About 80% of primary production is in the hands of state-owned enterprises, after taking into account the cuts to primary production that have occurred over the last several years. Furthermore, about 80% of primary production comes from countries that consume little-to-no uranium, and nearly 90% of uranium consumption occurs in countries that have little-to-no primary production. As a result, government-driven trade policies can be particularly disruptive for the uranium market.

In this environment, we believe the risk to uranium supply is greater than the risk to uranium demand and expect it will create a renewed focus on ensuring availability of long-term supply to fuel nuclear reactors. Over time, we expect this renewed focus on security of supply will provide the market signals producers need and will help offset any near-term costs we may incur as a result of the current disruptions to our business.


The world needs electricity

Our industry is driven by energy and electricity consumption which continues to rise year over year. Our utility customers’ nuclear power plants continue to be part of the critical infrastructure needed to guarantee the availability of 24-hour electricity to run hospitals, care facilities, and other essential services. Our customers are going to need uranium. As a reliable, independent, commercial supplier, we will continue to work with our customers to help meet their delivery needs.

Growth in Electricity Generation


  1990 2000 2018 2025 2040
Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2019 New Policies
Future estimates       30803 41373
Historic 10092 15441 26603    

The world needs clean-air energy

There is growing recognition of the role nuclear power must play in providing safe, reliable, affordable carbon-free baseload electricity and achieving a low-carbon future. Examples of this growing recognition include:

  • Many countries, US states, and utilities announced net-zero carbon targets in 2020. While most of these targets are further out in the future, many of the plans include an important role for nuclear. For example, a study suggests that for China to achieve its net-zero target by 2060, will require a 382% increase in nuclear power from 2025 levels.
  • In the US, President Biden’s campaign included positive statements about the need to maintain the existing nuclear power fleet and to build advanced reactors as part of an overall shift to non-emitting carbon power sources.
  • Japan’s Prime Minister, Yoshihide Suga, announced that the country aims to become carbon neutral by 2050. Regarding nuclear, he indicated Japan will continue to develop its nuclear energy supply with “maximum priority on safety”. Japan’s current energy plan calls for 20% to 22% nuclear by 2030.
  • In France, President Macron stated in December that nuclear will remain a pillar of the French energy mix for decades to come and pressed for preparatory studies on new next-generation EPR reactors to be wrapped up in the coming months.
  • ​The Netherlands announced they will begin a process that considers building up to 10 nuclear power plants.

Demand gap filled

The demand gap left by forced and premature nuclear reactor shutdowns since March of 2011 was filled in 2018. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency there are currently 443 reactors operating globally and 52 reactors under construction. With a number of reactor construction projects recently approved, and many more planned, the demand for uranium is growing. This growth is largely occurring in Asia and the Middle East.

Currently Under Construction

  China Asia EU India Africa & Middle East Eastern Europe Russia


Source: IAEA
Number of Reactors 12 12 8 6 4 3 3 2 2

Some of this growth is tempered by early reactor retirements, plans for reduced reliance on nuclear, or phase-out policies in other regions.

However, there is growing recognition of the role nuclear power must play in providing safe, reliable, affordable carbon-free baseload electricity and achieving a low-carbon economy. With the ongoing challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments will continue to rely on nuclear plants as part of the critical infrastructure needed to guarantee the availability of 24-hour power.

Supply-Demand: Putting it Together

Like other commodities, the uranium industry is cyclical. History demonstrates that in general, when prices are rising and high, uranium is perceived as scarce, and a lot of contracting activity takes place. The heavy contracting that takes place during price runs, drives investment in higher-cost sources of production. Once that production is in the market, it tends to stay in the market longer than is economically rational, creating the perception that uranium is abundant and always will be, and prices decline. When prices are declining and low, like we have seen over the past number of years, there is no perceived urgency to contract, and contracting activity and investment in new supply drops off. After years of low investment in supply, as has been the case since 2011, security of supply tends to overtake price concerns at some point, and utilities re-enter the long-term market to ensure they have the reliable supply of uranium they need to run their reactors.

UxC reports that over the last five years only approximately 390 million pounds U3O8 equivalent have been locked-up in the long-term market, while approximately 815 million pounds U3O8 equivalent have been consumed in reactors. We remain confident that utilities have a growing gap to fill.

In our industry, customers do not come to the market right before they need to load uranium into their reactors. To operate a reactor that could run for more than 60 years, natural uranium and the downstream services have to be purchased years in advance, allowing time for a number of processing steps before it arrives at the power plant as a finished fuel bundle. At present, we believe there is a significant amount of uranium that needs to be contracted to keep reactors running into the next decade.

UxC estimates that cumulative uncovered requirements are about 1.4 billion pounds to the end of 2035.

The longer the recovery of the long-term market is delayed, the less certainty there will be about the availability of future supply to fill growing demand. In fact, recent data from the US Energy Information Administration shows that utility inventories are starting to decline and are approaching levels that could put security of supply at risk. Ultimately, we expect the current market uncertainty to give way to increasing concerns about the security of future supply.

As utilities’ uncovered requirements grow, annual supply declines, demand for uranium from producers and financial players increases, and with trade policy potentially restricting access to some markets, we believe the pounds available in the spot market will not be adequate to satisfy the growing backlog of long-term demand. As a result, we expect there will be increased competition to secure uranium under long-term contracts on terms that will ensure the availability of reliable primary supply to meet growing demand.

Global population is on the rise, and there is a growing focus on electrification and decarbonization. With the world’s need for safe, clean, reliable baseload energy, nuclear remains an important part of the energy mix. We remain confident in the future of the nuclear industry. With demand increasing due to restarts and new reactors, and supply becoming less certain as a result of low prices, production curtailments, lack of investment, and end of reserve life, unplanned production disruptions, shrinking secondary supplies and trade policy issues, we’re continuing to expect a market transition.

Caution about Forward-Looking Information

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