2. Significant accounting policies
A. Statement of compliance
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).
These consolidated financial statements were authorized for issuance by the Company’s board of directors on February 7, 2014.
B. Basis of presentation
These consolidated financial statements are presented in Canadian dollars, which is the Company’s functional currency. All financial information is presented in Canadian dollars and amounts presented in tabular format have been rounded to the nearest thousand except per share amounts and where otherwise noted.
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for the following material items which are measured on an alternative basis at each reporting date:
Derivative financial instruments at fair value through profit and loss Fair value Non-derivative financial instruments at fair value through profit and loss Fair value Available-for-sale financial assets Fair value Liabilities for cash-settled share-based payment arrangements Fair value Net defined benefit liability Fair value of plan assets less the present value of the defined benefit obligation
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses. Actual results may vary from these estimates.
Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected. The areas involving a higher degree of judgment or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the consolidated financial statements are disclosed in note 5.
This summary of significant accounting policies is a description of the accounting methods and practices that have been used in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements and is presented to assist the reader in interpreting the statements contained herein. These accounting policies have been applied consistently to all entities within the consolidated group.
C. Consolidation principles
i. Business combinations
The acquisition method of accounting is used to account for the acquisition of subsidiaries by the Company. The Company measures goodwill at the acquisition date as the fair value of the consideration transferred, including the recognized amount of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree, less the net recognized amount (generally fair value) of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, all measured as of the acquisition date. When the excess is negative, a bargain purchase gain is recognized immediately in earnings. In a business combination achieved in stages, the acquisition date fair value of the Company’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree is also considered in computing goodwill.
Consideration transferred includes the fair values of the assets transferred, liabilities incurred and equity interests issued by the Company. Consideration also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration and share-based compensation awards that are replaced mandatorily in a business combination.
The Company elects on a transaction-by-transaction basis whether to measure any non-controlling interest at fair value, or at their proportionate share of the recognized amount of the identifiable net assets of the acquiree, at the acquisition date.
Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred, except for those costs related to the issue of debt or equity instruments. Transaction costs arising on the issue of equity instruments are recognized directly in equity. Transaction costs that are directly related to the probable issuance of a security that is classified as a financial liability is deducted from the amount of the financial liability when it is initially recognized, or recognized in earnings when the issuance is no longer probable.
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Cameco and its subsidiaries. Subsidiaries are entities over which the Company has control. Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date on which control is transferred to the Company and are deconsolidated from the date that control ceases.
iii. Investments in equity-accounted investees
Cameco’s investments in equity-accounted investees include investments in associates and joint ventures.
Associates are those entities over which the Company has significant influence, but not control or joint control, over the financial and operating policies. Significant influence is presumed to exist when the Company holds between 20% and 50% of the voting power of another entity, but can also arise where the Company holds less than 20% if it has the power to be actively involved and influential in policy decisions affecting the entity.
Investments in associates are accounted for using the equity method. The equity method involves the recording of the initial investment at cost and the subsequent adjusting of the carrying value of the investment for Cameco’s proportionate share of the earnings or loss and any other changes in the associates’ net assets, such as dividends. The cost of the investment includes transaction costs.
Adjustments are made to align the accounting policies of the associate with those of the Company before applying the equity method. When the Company’s share of losses exceeds its interest in an equity-accounted investee, the carrying amount of that interest is reduced to zero, and the recognition of further losses is discontinued except to the extent that the Company has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate. If the associate subsequently reports profits, Cameco resumes recognizing its share of those profits only after its share of the profits equals the share of losses not recognized.
iv. Joint arrangements
A joint arrangement can take the form of a joint operation or joint venture. All joint arrangements involve a contractual arrangement that establishes joint control.
A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. A joint operation may or may not be structured through a separate vehicle. These arrangements involve joint control of one or more of the assets acquired or contributed for the purpose of the joint operation. The consolidated financial statements of the Company include its share of the assets in such joint operations, together with its share of the liabilities, revenues and expenses arising jointly or otherwise from those operations. All such amounts are measured in accordance with the terms of each arrangement.
A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement. A joint venture is always structured through a separate vehicle. It operates in the same way as other entities, controlling the assets of the joint venture, earning its own revenue and incurring its own liabilities and expenses. Interests in joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method of accounting, whereby the Company’s proportionate interest in the assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of jointly controlled entities are recognized on a single line in the consolidated statements of financial position and consolidated statements of earnings. The share of joint ventures results is recognized in the Company’s consolidated financial statements from the date that joint control commences until the date at which it ceases.
v. Transactions eliminated on consolidation
Intra-group balances and transactions, and any unrealized income and expenses arising from intra-group transactions, are eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements. Unrealized gains arising from transactions with equity-accounted investees are eliminated against the investment to the extent of the Company’s interest in the investee. Unrealized losses are eliminated in the same manner as unrealized gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.
D. Foreign currency translation
Items included in the financial statements of each of Cameco’s subsidiaries, associates and joint arrangements are measured using their functional currency, which is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates. The consolidated financial statements are presented in Canadian dollars, which is Cameco’s functional and presentation currency.
i. Foreign currency transactions
Foreign currency transactions are translated into the respective functional currency of the Company and its entities using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the reporting date, monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated to the functional currency at the exchange rate at that date. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. The applicable exchange gains and losses arising on these transactions are reflected in earnings with the exception of foreign exchange gains or losses on provisions for decommissioning and reclamation activities that are in a foreign currency, which are capitalized in property, plant and equipment.
ii. Foreign operations
The assets and liabilities of foreign operations, including goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on acquisition, are translated to Canadian dollars at exchange rates at the reporting dates. The revenues and expenses of foreign operations are translated to Canadian dollars at exchange rates at the dates of the transactions.
Foreign currency differences are recognized in other comprehensive income. When a foreign operation is disposed of, in whole or in part, the relevant amount in the foreign currency translation account is transferred to earnings as part of the gain or loss on disposal.
When the settlement of a monetary item receivable from or payable to a foreign operation is neither planned nor likely in the foreseeable future, foreign exchange gains and losses arising from such a monetary item are considered to form part of the net investment in a foreign operation, and are recognized in other comprehensive income and presented within equity in the foreign currency translation account.
E. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consists of balances with financial institutions and investments in money market instruments, which have a term to maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase.
F. Short-term investments
Short-term investments are comprised of money market instruments with terms to maturity between three and 12 months.
Inventories of broken ore, uranium concentrates, and refined and converted products are measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value.
Cost includes direct materials, direct labour, operational overhead expenses and depreciation. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses.
Consumable supplies and spares are valued at the lower of cost or replacement value.
H. Property, plant and equipment
i. Buildings, plant and equipment and other
Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment charges. The cost of self-constructed assets includes the cost of materials and direct labour, borrowing costs and any other costs directly attributable to bringing the assets to the location and condition necessary for them to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management, including the initial estimate of the cost of dismantling and removing the items and restoring the site on which they are located.
When components of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items of property, plant and equipment and depreciated separately.
Gains and losses on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment are determined by comparing the proceeds from disposal with the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment, and are recognized in earnings.
ii. Mineral properties and mine development costs
The decision to develop a mine property within a project area is based on an assessment of the commercial viability of the property, the availability of financing and the existence of markets for the product. Once the decision to proceed to development is made, development and other expenditures relating to the project area are deferred as part of assets under construction and disclosed as a component of property, plant and equipment with the intention that these will be depreciated by charges against earnings from future mining operations. No depreciation is charged against the property until commercial production commences. After a mine property has been brought into commercial production, costs of any additional work on that property are expensed as incurred, except for large development programs, which will be deferred and depreciated over the remaining life of the related assets.
Depreciation is calculated over the depreciable amount, which is the cost of the asset less its residual value. Assets which are unrelated to production are depreciated according to the straight-line method based on estimated useful lives as follows:
Land Not depreciated Buildings 15 – 25 years Plant and equipment 3 – 15 years Furniture and fixtures 3 – 10 years Other 3 – 5 years
Mining properties and certain mining and conversion assets for which the economic benefits from the asset are consumed in a pattern which is linked to the production level are depreciated according to the unit-of-production method. For conversion assets, the amount of depreciation is measured by the portion of the facilities’ total estimated lifetime production that is produced in that period. For mining assets and properties, the amount of depreciation or depletion is measured by the portion of the mines’ proven and probable mineral reserves recovered during the period. Nuclear generating plants, which are leased assets, are depreciated according to the straight-line method based on the shorter of useful life and remaining lease term.
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting period and are adjusted if appropriate.
iv. Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs on funds directly attributable to finance the acquisition, production or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized until such time as substantially all the activities necessary to prepare the qualifying asset for its intended use are complete. A qualifying asset is one that takes a substantial period of time to prepare for its intended use. Capitalization is discontinued when the asset enters commercial production or development ceases. Where the funds used to finance a project form part of general borrowings, interest is capitalized based on the weighted average interest rate applicable to the general borrowings outstanding during the period of construction.
v. Repairs and maintenance
The cost of replacing a component of property, plant and equipment is capitalized if it is probable that future economic benefits embodied within the component will flow to the Company. The carrying amount of the replaced component is derecognized. Costs of routine maintenance and repair are charged to products and services sold.
I. Goodwill and intangible assets
Goodwill arising from the acquisition of subsidiaries is initially recognized at cost, measured as the excess of the fair value of the consideration paid over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired. At the date of acquisition, goodwill is allocated to the cash generating unit (CGU), or group of CGUs that is expected to receive the economic benefits of the business combination. Goodwill is subsequently measured at cost, less accumulated impairment losses.
Intangible assets acquired individually or as part of a group of assets are initially recognized at cost and measured subsequently at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses. Subsequent expenditure is capitalized only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. The cost of a group of intangible assets acquired in a transaction, including those acquired in a business combination that meet the specified criteria for recognition apart from goodwill, is allocated to the individual assets acquired based on their relative fair values.
Intangible assets that have finite useful lives are amortized over their estimated remaining useful lives. Amortization methods and useful lives are reviewed at each reporting period and are adjusted if appropriate.
J. Leased assets
Leases which result in the Company receiving substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Upon initial recognition, the leased asset is measured at an amount equal to the lower of its fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to that asset.
Lease agreements that do not meet the recognition criteria of a finance lease are classified and recognized as operating leases and are not recognized in the Company’s consolidated statements of financial position. Payments made under operating leases are charged to income on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between finance cost and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance cost is allocated to each period of the lease term to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.
K. Finance income and finance costs
Finance income comprises interest income on funds invested, gains on the disposal of available-for-sale financial assets, and changes in the fair value of financial assets. Interest income is recognized in earnings as it accrues, using the effective interest method. Finance costs comprise interest and fees on borrowings, unwinding of the discount on provisions and changes in the fair value of financial assets.
Borrowing costs that are not directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are expensed in the period incurred.
Foreign currency gains and losses are reported on a net basis as part of finance costs.
L. Research and development costs
Expenditures on research are charged against earnings when incurred. Development costs are recognized as assets when the Company can demonstrate technical feasibility and that the asset will generate probable future economic benefits.
i. Non-derivative financial assets
Financial assets not classified as at fair value through profit and loss are assessed at each reporting date to determine whether there is objective evidence of impairment. Objective evidence that financial assets (including equity securities) are impaired can include default or delinquency by a debtor, restructuring of an amount due to the Company on terms that the Company would not consider otherwise, indications that a debtor or issuer will enter bankruptcy, or the disappearance of an active market for a security. In addition, for an investment in an equity security, a significant or prolonged decline in its fair value below its cost is objective evidence of impairment.
Impairment losses on available-for-sale financial assets are recognized by transferring the cumulative loss that has been recognized in other comprehensive income, and presented in equity, to earnings. The cumulative loss that is removed from other comprehensive income and recognized in earnings is the difference between the acquisition cost, net of any principal payment and amortization, and the current fair value, less any impairment loss previously recognized in earnings.
If, in a subsequent period, the fair value of an impaired available-for-sale debt security increases and the increase can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognized in earnings, then the impairment loss is reversed through earnings, otherwise, it is reversed through other comprehensive income. Impairment losses on available-for-sale equity securities that are recognized in earnings are never reversed through earnings.
ii. Non-financial assets
The carrying amounts of Cameco’s non-financial assets are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated. Goodwill is tested annually for impairment.
For impairment testing, assets are grouped together into CGUs which are the smallest group of assets that generate cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or CGUs. Goodwill arising from a business combination is allocated to CGUs or groups of CGUs that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.
The recoverable amount of an asset or CGU is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. Value in use is based on the estimated future cash flows, discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or CGU. Fair value is determined as the amount that would be obtained from the sale of the asset or CGU in an arm’s-length transaction between knowledgeable and willing parties. For exploration properties, fair value is based on the implied fair value of the resources in place using comparable market transaction metrics.
An impairment loss is recognized if the carrying amount of an asset or its CGU exceeds its recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognized in earnings. Impairment losses recognized in respect of CGUs are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU, and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets in the CGU on a pro rata basis.
Impairment losses recognized in prior periods are assessed at each reporting date whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the impairment may have reversed. If the impairment has reversed, the carrying amount of the asset is increased to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, if no impairment loss had been recognized. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognized immediately in earnings. An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed.
N. Exploration and evaluation expenditures
Exploration and evaluation expenditures are those expenditures incurred by the Company in connection with the exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources before the technical feasibility and commercial viability of extracting a mineral resource are demonstrable. These expenditures include researching and analyzing existing exploration data, conducting geological studies, exploratory drilling and sampling, and compiling prefeasibility and feasibility studies. Exploration and evaluation expenditures are charged against earnings as incurred, except when there is a high degree of confidence in the viability of the project and it is probable that these costs will be recovered through future development and exploitation.
The technical feasibility and commercial viability of extracting a resource is considered to be determinable based on several factors, including the existence of proven and probable reserves and the demonstration that future economic benefits are probable. When an area is determined to be technically feasible and commercially viable, the exploration and evaluation assets attributable to that area are first tested for impairment and then transferred to property, plant and equipment.
Exploration and evaluation costs that have been acquired in a business combination or asset acquisition are capitalized under the scope of IFRS 6, Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources, and are reported as part of property, plant and equipment.
A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the risk-adjusted expected future cash flows at a pre-tax risk-free rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money. The unwinding of the discount is recognized as a finance cost.
i. Environmental restoration
The mining, extraction and processing activities of the Company normally give rise to obligations for site closure and environmental restoration. Closure and restoration can include facility decommissioning and dismantling, removal or treatment of waste materials, as well as site and land restoration. The Company provides for the closure, reclamation and decommissioning of its operating sites in the financial period when the related environmental disturbance occurs, based on the estimated future costs using information available at the reporting date. Costs included in the provision comprise all closure and restoration activity expected to occur gradually over the life of the operation and at the time of closure. Routine operating costs that may impact the ultimate closure and restoration activities, such as waste material handling conducted as a normal part of a mining or production process, are not included in the provision.
The timing of the actual closure and restoration expenditure is dependent upon a number of factors such as the life and nature of the asset, the operating licence conditions and the environment in which the mine operates. Closure and restoration provisions are measured at the expected value of future cash flows, discounted to their present value using a current pre-tax risk-free rate. Significant judgments and estimates are involved in deriving the expectations of future activities and the amount and timing of the associated cash flows.
At the time a provision is initially recognized, to the extent that it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the reclamation, decommissioning and restoration expenditure will flow to the Company, the corresponding cost is capitalized as an asset. The capitalized cost of closure and restoration activities is recognized in property, plant and equipment and depreciated on a unit-of-production basis. The value of the provision is gradually increased over time as the effect of discounting unwinds. The unwinding of the discount is an expense recognized in finance costs.
Closure and rehabilitation provisions are also adjusted for changes in estimates. The provision is reviewed at each reporting date for changes to obligations, legislation or discount rates that effect change in cost estimates or life of operations. The cost of the related asset is adjusted for changes in the provision resulting from changes in estimated cash flows or discount rates, and the adjusted cost of the asset is depreciated prospectively.
ii. Waste disposal
The refining, conversion and manufacturing processes generate certain uranium-contaminated waste. The Company has established strict procedures to ensure this waste is disposed of safely. A provision for waste disposal costs in respect of these materials is recognized when they are generated. Costs associated with the disposal, the timing of cash flows and discount rates are estimated both at initial recognition and subsequent measurement.
P. Employee future benefits
i. Pension obligations
The Company accrues its obligations under employee benefit plans. The Company has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans. A defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Company pays fixed contributions into a separate entity. The Company has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior periods. A defined benefit plan is a pension plan other than a defined contribution plan. Typically, defined benefit plans define an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation.
The liability recognized in the consolidated statements of financial position in respect of defined benefit pension plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the reporting date less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually, by qualified independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method prorated on service and management’s best estimate of expected plan investment performance, salary escalation, retirement ages of employees and expected health care costs. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid, and that have terms to maturity approximating the terms of the related pension liability.
The Company recognizes all actuarial gains and losses arising from defined benefit plans in other comprehensive income, and reports them in retained earnings. When the benefits of a plan are improved, the portion of the increased benefit relating to past service by employees is recognized immediately in earnings.
For defined contribution plans, the contributions are recognized as employee benefit expense in earnings in the periods during which services are rendered by employees. Prepaid contributions are recognized as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in future payments is available.
ii. Other post-retirement benefit plans
The Company provides certain post-retirement health care benefits to its retirees. The entitlement to these benefits is usually conditional on the employee remaining in service up to retirement age and the completion of a minimum service period. The expected costs of these benefits are accrued over the period of employment using the same accounting methodology as used for defined benefit pension plans. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in other comprehensive income in the period in which they arise. These obligations are valued annually by independent qualified actuaries.
iii. Short-term employee benefits
Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognized for the amount expected to be paid under short-term cash bonus plans if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee, and the obligation can be measured reliably.
iv. Termination benefits
Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated by the Company before the normal retirement date, or whenever an employee accepts an entity’s offer of benefits in exchange for termination of employment. Cameco recognizes termination benefits as an expense at the earlier of when the Company can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits and when the Company recognizes costs for a restructuring. If benefits are payable more than 12 months after the reporting period, they are discounted to their present value.
v. Share-based compensation
For equity-settled plans, the grant date fair value of share-based compensation awards granted to employees is recognized as an employee benefit expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period that the employees unconditionally become entitled to the awards. The amount recognized as an expense is adjusted to reflect the number of awards for which the related service and vesting conditions are expected to be met, such that the amount ultimately recognized as an expense is based on the number of awards that meet the related service and non-market performance conditions at the vesting date.
For cash-settled plans, the fair value of the amount payable to employees is recognized as an expense, with a corresponding increase in liabilities, over the period that the employees unconditionally become entitled to payment. The liability is remeasured at each reporting date and at settlement date. Any changes in the fair value of the liability are recognized as employee benefit expense in earnings.
Cameco’s contributions under the employee share ownership plan are expensed during the year of contribution. Shares purchased with Company contributions and with dividends paid on such shares become unrestricted on January 1 of the second plan year following the date on which such shares were purchased.
Q. Revenue recognition
Cameco supplies uranium concentrates and uranium conversion services to utility customers.
Cameco recognizes revenue on the sale of its nuclear products when the risks and rewards of ownership pass to the customer and collection is reasonably assured. Cameco’s sales are pursuant to an enforceable contract that indicates the type of sales arrangement, pricing and delivery terms, as well as details related to the transfer of title.
Cameco has three types of sales arrangements with its customers in its uranium and fuel services businesses. These arrangements include uranium supply, toll conversion services and conversion supply (converted uranium), which is a combination of uranium supply and toll conversion services.
In a uranium supply arrangement, Cameco is contractually obligated to provide uranium concentrates to its customers. Cameco-owned uranium is physically delivered to conversion facilities (Converters) where the Converter will credit Cameco’s account for the volume of accepted uranium. Based on delivery terms in a sales contract with its customer, Cameco instructs the Converter to transfer title of a contractually specified quantity of uranium to the customer’s account at the Converter’s facility. At this point, the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred and Cameco invoices the customer and recognizes revenue for the uranium supply.
Toll conversion services
In a toll conversion arrangement, Cameco is contractually obligated to convert customer-owned uranium to a chemical state suitable for enrichment. Based on delivery terms in a sales contract with its customer, Cameco either (i) physically delivers converted uranium to enrichment facilities (Enrichers) where it instructs the Enricher to transfer title of a contractually specified quantity of converted uranium to the customer’s account at the Enricher’s facility, or (ii) transfers title of a contractually specified quantity of converted uranium to either an Enricher’s account or the customer’s account. At this point, the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred and Cameco invoices the customer and recognizes revenue for the toll conversion services.
In a conversion supply arrangement, Cameco is contractually obligated to provide converted uranium of acceptable origins to its customers. Based on delivery terms in a sales contract with its customer, Cameco either (i) physically delivers converted uranium to the Enricher where it instructs the Enricher to transfer title of a contractually specified quantity of converted uranium to the customer’s account at the Enricher’s facility, or (ii) transfers title of a contractually specified quantity of converted uranium to either an Enricher’s account or a customer’s account at Cameco’s Port Hope conversion facility. At this point, the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred and Cameco invoices the customer and recognizes revenue for both the uranium supplied and the conversion service provided.
Electricity sales are recognized at the time of generation, and delivery to the purchasing utility is metered at the point of interconnection with the transmission system. Revenues are recognized on an accrual basis, which includes an estimate of the value of electricity produced during the period but not yet billed.
R. Financial instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another.
i. Non-derivative financial assets and financial liabilities
At initial recognition, Cameco classifies each of its financial assets and financial liabilities into one of the following categories:
Fair value through profit or loss
A financial asset or liability is classified as at fair value through profit or loss if it is classified as held-for-trading or is designated as such on initial recognition. Cameco classifies a financial instrument as held-for-trading if it was acquired principally for the purpose of selling or repurchasing in the near term, or if it is part of a portfolio with evidence of a recent pattern of short-term profit taking. Directly attributable transaction costs are recognized in earnings as incurred. These financial assets and financial liabilities are measured at fair value, with any gains or losses on revaluation being recognized in earnings.
Held-to-maturity investments are financial assets that an entity has the intention and ability to hold until maturity, provide fixed or determinable payments and contain a fixed maturity date. Assets in this category are initially measured at fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.
Loans and receivables
Loans and receivables are financial assets that provide fixed or determinable payments and are not quoted in an active market. Assets in this category are initially measured at fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.
Available-for-sale financial assets are non-derivative financial assets that are either designated in this category or not classified into any of the other categories. These assets are measured at fair value plus any directly attributable transaction costs with any gains or losses on re-measurement recognized in other comprehensive income. Accumulated changes in fair value are recorded as a separate component of equity until the asset is derecognized or impaired, then the cumulative gain or loss in other comprehensive income is transferred to earnings.
Other financial liabilities
This category consists of all non-derivative financial liabilities that do not meet the definition of held-for-trading liabilities, and that have not been designated as liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. These liabilities are initially recognized at fair value less any directly attributable transaction costs and are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.
ii. Derivative financial instruments
The Company holds derivative financial instruments to reduce exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. Through its investment in BPLP, the Company also holds commodity instruments to reduce exposure to fluctuations in commodity prices. Except for those designated as hedging instruments, all derivative financial instruments are recorded at fair value in the consolidated statements of financial position, with any directly attributable transaction costs recognized in earnings as incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, changes in fair value are recognized in earnings.
The purpose of hedging transactions is to modify the Company’s exposure to one or more risks by creating an offset between changes in the fair value of, or the cash inflows attributable to, the hedged item and the hedging item. When hedge accounting is appropriate, the hedging relationship is designated as a fair value hedge, a cash flow hedge, or a foreign currency risk hedge related to a net investment in a foreign operation.
At the inception of a hedging relationship, the Company formally documents all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. The process includes linking all derivatives to specific assets and liabilities on the consolidated statements of financial position or to specific firm commitments or forecasted transactions. The Company also formally assesses, both at the inception and on an ongoing basis, whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of hedged items.
For fair value hedges, changes in the fair value of the derivatives and corresponding changes in fair value of the hedged items attributed to the risk being hedged are recognized in earnings. For cash flow hedges, the effective portion of the changes in the fair values of the derivative instruments are recorded in other comprehensive income until the hedged items are recognized in earnings. Derivative instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting, or are not designated as hedging instruments, are marked-to-market and the resulting net gains or losses are recognized in earnings.
Separable embedded derivatives
Derivatives may be embedded in other financial instruments (the ‘host instrument’). Embedded derivatives are treated as separate derivatives when their economic characteristics and risks are not clearly and closely related to those of the host instrument, the terms of the embedded derivative are the same as those of a stand-alone derivative, and the combined contract is not designated at fair value. These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with subsequent changes recognized in gains or losses on derivatives.
S. Income tax
Income tax expense is comprised of current and deferred taxes. Current tax and deferred tax are recognized in earnings except to the extent that it relates to a business combination, or items recognized directly in equity or in other comprehensive income.
Current tax is the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantially enacted at the reporting date, and any adjustments to tax payable in respect of previous years.
Deferred tax is recognized in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. In addition, deferred tax is not recognized for taxable temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of goodwill. Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to temporary differences when they reverse, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different tax entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realized simultaneously.
A deferred tax asset is recognized for unused tax losses, tax credits and deductible temporary differences, to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be utilized. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized.
The Company’s exposure to uncertain tax positions is evaluated and a provision is made where it is probable that this exposure will materialize.
T. Share capital
Common shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of common shares are recognized as a reduction of equity, net of any tax effects.
U. Earnings per share
The Company presents basic and diluted earnings per share data for its common shares. Earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net earnings attributable to equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding.
Diluted earnings per share is determined by adjusting the net earnings attributable to equity holders of the Company and the weighted average number of common shares outstanding, for the effects of all dilutive potential common shares. The calculation of diluted earnings per share assumes that outstanding options which are dilutive to earnings per share are exercised and the proceeds are used to repurchase shares of the Company at the average market price of the shares for the period. The effect is to increase the number of shares used to calculate diluted earnings per share.
V. Segment reporting
An operating segment is a component of the Company that engages in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses, including revenues and expenses that relate to transactions with any of the Company’s other segments. To be classified as a segment, discrete financial information must be available and operating results must be regularly reviewed by the Company’s Chief Executive Officer.
Segment capital expenditure is the total cost incurred during the period to acquire property, plant and equipment, and intangible assets other than goodwill.